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Ian Manners, foto.

Ian Manners


Ian Manners, foto.

De danske forbehold overfor den Europæiske Union : Udviklingen siden 2000

The Danish Opt Outs from the European Union : Developments since 2000


  • Ian Manners

Summary, in English

In November 2007, the Danish Parliament asked the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) to prepare a report on developments in the EU
since 2000 in the areas covered by the four Danish ropt-outs. In the commission for the investigation, it is requested to include the development that a new treaty basis (the Treaty of Lisbon) gives rise to.

This investigation therefore examines developments in the EU in the areas of defence and security policy, economic and monetary union, Union citizenship and judicial and home affairs, and the significance of the reservations for Denmark is assessed. The investigation is based on an extensive analysis of primary and secondary sources. In addition to written sources, the investigation included interviews with over 150 leading Danish and non-Danish participants close to the areas covered by the opt-outs.

A number of words should be linked to the investigation's method. Due to the sensitive and political nature of the subject, the use of interview-based information has been addressed based on a number of considerations. In addition to the use of structured interviews, criteria for conveying key statements have been independent verification and confirmation. Statements have been prioritized according to how many interviewees - independently of each other – brought them up, and also verified when submitted to other interviewees. The selection of interviewees was based on the desire to talk to the most central people who have to do with the reserved areas and Denmark's position in the EU on a daily basis - with the widest possible coverage of institutional forums and nationalities. Politicians and people associated with political movements have not been interviewed, with the exception of a number of individuals, where the interviews have had to contribute to the investigation's description of key events.

In assessing the significance of the reservations for Denmark, the investigation has taken the EU cooperation as it stands today as a point of departure. This is not a general assessment of developments in the EU or the possibility one for alternative forms of cooperation. In addition, the investigation exclusively assesses the out-outs' significance in relation to how the situation is assessed to be without the out-outs. This means that Denmark is not compared to other

The investigation has been prepared at DIIS by Ian Manners (coordinator), senior researcher, DIIS; Catharina Sørensen, researcher, DIIS; Maja Kluger Rasmussen,
research assistant, DIIS; Rebecca Adler-Nissen, PhD student, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen; Thomas Gammeltoft-Hansen, PhD student, Faculty of Law, Aarhus University/DIIS; Trine Flockhart, Senior Researcher, DIIS; Niels Aadal Rasmussen, senior analyst, DIIS; Martin Marcussen, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen; Eva Ersbøll, researcher, Institute for Human Rights; Jesper Dahl Kelstrup and Anne Møller, student assistants.








Danish Institute for International Studies


  • Political Science


  • Denmark
  • European Union
  • Treaty on European Union
  • opt-outs
  • reservations
  • Security and Defence Policy
  • Economic and Monetary Union
  • Justice and Home Affairs
  • Union Citizenship




  • ISBN: 978-87-7605-272-0