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STANCE: State-Making and the Origins of Global Order in the Long Nineteenth Century and Beyond

How did state-making affect the international system in the 19th century and beyond?

Funded by the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation [Riksbankens Jubileumsfond]

Three research themes build the core of this 6-year research program:

  1. How did the different dimensions of state-making, including internal and external sovereignty, revenue extraction, professionalization of the bureaucracy and the development of infrastructural capacity, evolve? What actors and organized interests supported or put up resistance to these processes?
  2. How were these dimensions of state-making affected by geopolitical competition, warfare and the diffusion of novel political technologies?
  3. What were the consequences for the international system, both with respect to the type of state that emerged and what entities were granted membership in the state system?

More information about the program can be found on the following pages:

Go to STANCE website at

Researchers on the project