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Photo Milka Ivanovska Hadjievska

Milka Ivanovska Hadjievska

Postdoctoral Fellow

Photo Milka Ivanovska Hadjievska

The democratic potential of politically and socially oriented CSOs : The case of North Macedonia


  • Milka Ivanovska Hadjievska

Summary, in English

The chapter investigates the democratic potential of politically and socially oriented civil society organizations (CSOs) to engage citizens and articulate citizens’ interests in the policymaking process in North Macedonia. To do so, the chapter reports on the responses of CSOs to a survey which sought information on the extent to which organizations involve members in organizational activities and internal decision-making processes. The survey also enquired about the engagement of the respondent CSOs in different types of political activities. Based on the interest group and civil society literature, and the specific conditions for CSOs in a small state like North Macedonia, politically oriented groups are more likely to contribute to institutional democratic effects, while socially oriented CSOs are more likely to contribute to individual democratic effects. The results of the survey show that even though politically oriented CSOs comprise a smaller section of the population, they have greater democratic potential than socially oriented CSOs, possibly because the latter have fewer funds and human resources at their disposal. This suggests that the long-term investment by the European Union and foreign donors in CSO development in North Macedonia had a positive impact on the organizational capacities of politically oriented CSOs and on their democratic potential.


  • Department of Political Science

Publishing year







Handbook of Civil Society and Social Movements in Small States

Document type

Book chapter




  • Political Science




  • ISBN: 978-100334153-6
  • ISBN: 978-103237714-8