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Jana Wrange has published an article on interactions with NATO in the area of Sweden’s civil defence prior to country’s membership to NATO

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Doctoral student Jana Wrange, Department of Political Science, Lund University.

‘Outsider’ socialization: Sweden’s interactions with NATO in civil defence prior to membership


This study assesses the impact of NATO socialization upon an ’outsider’ country, using Sweden in the area of civil defence as a case study. Relying on 33 interviews from 2020 and 2022 with civil servants from Swedish government agencies, the article gives a unique empirical account of practitioners’ perceptions on the interactions (or the absence thereof) with NATO prior to Sweden’s NATO membership, covering a crucial phase under which the country knocked on the alliance’s door. It expands the existing socialization literature by developing the ’outsider’ perspective, while also contributing to the understanding of the impact of the socialization process on a practical level. To that end, the study develops a theoretical framework based on exclusion, interactions, incentives, and compatibility which serves to elevate the analysis that highlights challenges for ’outsiders,’ while proposing subsequent strategies to mitigate them. Furthermore, it unlocks a discussion on NATO’s role in national resilience of present and future member countries.

Full article: ‘Outsider’ socialization: Sweden’s interactions with NATO in civil defence prior to membership (

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