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Sara Kalm

Sara Kalm

Director of Third Cycle Studies | Associate Professor | Senior Lecturer | Qualified Teaching Practitioner

Sara Kalm

Citizenship and mobility of the poor: Sweden during the 19th century


  • Sara Kalm

Summary, in English

The distinctive features of the modern form of citizenship include, among other things, that it is both internally inclusive and externally exclusive; that it establishes legal equality so that membership of the state supersedes all other memberships and allegiances; and that it defines membership as independent of residence. These characteristics largely evolved during the “long nineteenth century”, the period between the French Revolution and the First World War. Similar to that of today, the historical situation in which citizenship evolved was one of intensified mobility. With the example of Sweden, this article finds that citizenship, in both its internal and external dimensions, was elaborated partly as a way to manage the mobility of the migrant poor. The contours of citizenship emerged as authorities aimed to control and direct the movement of the poor, which preceded control efforts. This has implications for our understanding of citizenship as well as of the state, and highlights the agency of migrants.


  • Department of Political Science
  • LU Profile Area: Human rights

Publishing year





European Journal of Sociology

Document type

Journal article


Cambridge University Press


  • Political Science




  • ISSN: 0003-9756