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Fariborz Zelli

Fariborz Zelli

Professor | Principal Investigator BECC

Fariborz Zelli

Inclusión social en el proceso REDD en el Perú: una perspectiva de gobernanza en múltiples niveles

Social inclusion in the Peruvian REDD Process: a multi-level governance perspective


  • Daniela Erler
  • Sina Frank
  • Jonas-Ibrahim Hein
  • Hannes Hotz
  • Anna Maria Santa Cruz Melgarejo
  • Fariborz Zelli

Summary, in English

REDD is one of the latest additions to a series of incentive-based mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions. Although international negotiations have not eliminated uncertainties regarding its social, economic and political implications, many developing and emerging countries have begun to engage in REDD. Peru, the country with the world’s fourth largest tropical forest area has good reason to participate in REDD: deforestation currently causes about half of Peru’s annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
In the last eight years, public and private actors across scales have undertaken various initiatives – resulting in a multi-level governance patchwork with top-down and bottom-up processes and institutions that operate in parallel. Our study addresses this hotchpotch and its challenges to key aspects of good governance.
First, we mapped Peru’s complex REDD governance architecture and the role of major stakeholders. At the national level, we scrutinized Peru’s readiness preparation proposal (R–PP) and its plan for the Forest Investment Programme (FIP), the REDD stakeholders roundtable, decentralization of forest-related competencies, and the dif cult birth of new national laws on forests and full, prior and informed consent (FPIC). At the regional level, the study focuses on the two key regions of San Martín and Madre de Dios, mapping their most important forest policies and forms of stakeholder self-organization. Finally, we investigated four pilot projects with very different legal status that re ect the broad scope of REDD projects in Peru.
Second, we conducted a stakeholder-based assessment of different dimensions of social inclusion in Peruvian REDD governance. Despite the exibility offered by the numerous processes, we found areas that need improvement. In some cases these are merely teething problems; others are deeply rooted in socio-economic imbalances and political culture. The challenges include: the insuf cient nancial, technical and human capacities of ministries and regional governments; a legitimacy gap due to the dominance of certain NGOs and companies; information and participation asymmetries of forest users in REDD projects, which can cause social tension; insuf cient consideration of informal settlers; and insecurity regarding the distribution of REDD revenues among investors, NGOs and forest users.


  • Department of Political Science

Publishing year




Document type

Working paper


German Development Institute (DIE); German Federal Ministry for the Environment (MINAM); Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)


  • Political Science